Acute pain happens as a result of injury, immediately after the injury and usually needs immediate medical attention. Treatment is focused on the body part that is injured. It is provided by the physician and you are a passive recipient of treatment.
Acute pain tells us that something is wrong and needs attention. Pain is in proportion to the injury. It is a sign of tissue damage and is warning us to protect the injured site and prevent more tissue damage.
Acute pain is short lived - it resolves within a few days, weeks or months at the latest when it has served its purpose of protecting the injured tissue. Then we can return to normal lifestyle.
Treatment for acute pain involves medication, rest, physical therapy and possibly even surgery, depending on the condition.